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This site offers visitors steel industry news from around the globe; steel pricing data (including raw material prices); steelmaking plant and equipment capex costs; and steel market knowledge (supply and demand including green steel demand projections). Our consultants provide impartial expert advisory support relating to metal sector modernisation & investment. This includes feasibility assessments and due diligence appraisals.

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Iron & Steel Pricing

pig iron pricing
rebar prices
price of hot rolled coil

Trends & Forecasts

Iron ore costs and finished steel prices appear to be on a downward trend. As at Q4 2023, we expect the bottom of the price cycle (the next pricing trough) to occur in mid-2025. Why not check out our 2024 / 2025 market outlook to learn more?

Latest News Reports

Check out the latest steel industry news, including company and regional press reports.


Capex Costs

We maintain a database of capital expenditures for iron and steel industry plant and equipment. The database content, compiled from public sources for over 1200 actual modernisations, covers the following.

  • Input materials: coal washing plants, lime kilns, sinter plants, coke making, iron ore beneficiation, pellet plants, DRI and HBI.
  • Iron and steel making: blast furnaces, BF reline costs, BOF, electric arc furnace, induction furnaces and continuous casting. We also maintain capital investment cost data for other melt shop equipment such as pig iron desulphurization, pulverised coal injection (PCI), ladle furnaces, vacuum degassing, vacuum arc remelting (VAR), vacuum oxygen decarburisation (VOD) for stainless steels.
  • Flat products: steel plate, HRC (hot rolled coil) including Steckel mills, CRC (cold rolled coil), HDG (hot dip galvanised sheet), tinplate, organic coated sheet, temper rolling (skin-pass mills).
  • Long iron and steel products: heavy sections, rail, carbon steel bar, rod, wire, strand and rope. We also have reheat furnace capex costs.
  • Tube: welded pipe, including high frequency ERW as well as helical or longitudinal submerged arc welded [HSAW or LSAW]; and seamless tube. We also hold pipe coating line cost information (for both epoxy and concrete coatings).
  • Ancillary operations: air separation units, dedusting, power generation units, slitting lines, pickling lines, batch or continuous annealing lines, waste water treatment systems, acid regeneration plants, scrap shredding machinery.
  • Further processing: slitting lines, blanking equipment, wire drawing, welded wire mesh fabrication, ball grinding.
  • Greenfield steelworks: iron ore based integrated mills, mini mills.
  • New technology Danieli MiDa micro mills (endless casting and rolling).
  • Decarbonisation related technologies: such as electrolyzers, wind farms and solar power plants.
  • Carbon, alloy and specialty steels including stainless.

  • slab plant capital expenditure
  • integrated steel mill capex costs
  • dri plant investment costs
  • billet mill construction cost
  • cost of new mini-mill
  • bar mill cost
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Call us to learn more about our iron and steel capital expenditure database. Our advisors can also help with valuations of second-hand equipment.



industry news and business information

Get access to the latest carbon or stainless steel media reports, prices and global business intelligence.
Our subscriptions start from only $10 / month.

Cost Models

We can prepare economic models for raw material production (including coke, sinter, DRI), iron and steelmaking (for BOF, EAF and induction furnace process), casting and rolling (including flat, long or tube products). These models can be prepared for any region of the world, or for any nominated facility. Please contact us for further information.

Example here shows 2023 liquid steel costs for electric arc furnace based steelmaking in a notional one million tonne per year coastal works in Japan, in US dollars per metric tonne.

Economic models may be supplied for single or linked steel manufacturing processes (e.g. an EAF with a billet caster plus a bar mill); and with more or less detail than shown here.

2023 EAF Economics

eaf cost model
Models can also be used for cost curves e.g. hot rolled coil (HRC).



project feasibility study consulting support

Are you looking for help with an independent feasibility appraisal for a steel plant investment? Do you need a market, technical and financial evaluation as part of the viability assessment? This is our core business.


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business restructuring advice

Thinking about corporate restructuring? Are you maybe on the road to privatisation? We have much experience in metal sector corporate turnaround assignments and would be pleased to assist you. Call us for a no-obligation discussion.


Historic Perspectives

Selected Steel Firm: Valin

Recent events:

Contact us for a facility overview of this or any other firm.

For earlier Valin events,
visit Valin history page.

Why not check out our 'history of steel' pages, and learn about the corporate history of the world's 30 largest steelmakers?

steel company history


steel consultants - metal experts

Looking for more information about our firm? Learn more about our ferrous and non-ferrous expert witness support services and related activities in the metals and mining industries.

Iron and Steel Plant Database

Our database of plant and equipment in iron and steel production facilities covers:

  • Raw materials (coke, sinter, direct reduced iron or HBI, blast furnace pig iron)
  • Steelmaking assets (EAF and BOF crude steel)
  • Semi-finished products (bloom, billet, slab)
  • Flat products (plate, hot and cold rolled coil, coated sheet including galvanised iron or GI, PPGI, and tinplate)
  • Long products (heavy and light sections, bar, reinforcing bar, wire rod)
  • Seamless and welded tube (including helical / spiral and longitudinal welded pipe).

This information encompasses both carbon and specialty steel (including stainless, electrical steel, SBQ) and is continuously updated. We can provide facility information for these plant items in most regions of the world. The data coverage typically includes:

  • Site location
  • Works ownership
  • Factory installation date
  • Closure date, where relevant
  • Annual capacity in metric tons per year
  • Machinery and / or technology specification
  • Dimensional capability [such as minimum / maximum gauge or section diameter]
  • Details of other ancillary on-site equipment
  • and in many cases: the name of the foundry supplier, modernisation details, and comments on grade or product orientation.

If for example you are interested in a report on blast furnace commissioning dates, we can provide the following analysis for ~1500 different furnaces worldwide.

Blast FurnaceCapacity, ktStart Up
Shandong Steel Group, Shandong, China37502017
Kobe Steel, Hyogo, Japan20042017
CSP - Cia Siderurgica do Pecem, Ceara, Brazil30302016
Zarand Iranian Steel, Iran15152016
Wuhan Fangchenggang, Guangxi, China75752016
Hung Nghiep Formosa Ha Tinh Steel, Ha Tinh, Vietnam35702016
Kardemir, Turkey20402015
Baosteel Group Zhanjiang Steel, Guangdong, China56102015
Tata Steel, Odisha, India33652015
Krakatau Steel, West Java, Indonesia13502015
V&M do Brazil, Minas Gerais, Brazil15452014
Jiangsu Tieben, Jiangsu, China86552014
Source: James F King. Assessment prepared in mid-2023.


expert assistance

We also provide independent expert witness support to help resolve steel sector legal disputes. Our experts offer objective and unbiased opinions on technical or commercial matters relating to iron & steel. Contact us for a no-obligation discussion on +44 (0) 775-149 0885.


Industry Geography

We can supply location and capacity data in spreadsheet form and / or prepare digital steel industry maps for any group of industrial facilities in most geographies. Facilities include iron and steelmaking plants as well as flat or long product plants. Territories can include Asia, Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the United States and South America.

steel plant map

Competition and Industry Structure

Steel company profitability is typically determined by the extent of competition in a given product market. In some sectors, a producer can enjoy a near-monopoly supply position. The production of concrete reinforcing bar in the UK is one such example, with Celsa's Tremorfa mill in Cardiff being the sole UK manufacturer.

Other markets more commonly have multiple suppliers. Thus, rebar fabrication in Spain is much more competitive than in the UK and is characterised by the existence of eight competing plants (see table below). Rebar supply in other countries is still more fragmented. In Italy there are over 30 rebar production facilities; and in Turkey, we estimate that there are more than 50 rebar mills.

OwnerPlantLocationCapacity, kt / yr
ArcelorMittalZumarraga [partly closed?]Gipuzkoa225
Celsa GroupCastellbisbalBarcelona325
Celsa GroupLa Coruna (Atlantique)Galicia780
Celsa GroupNervacero (Bilbao)Vizcaya400
Grupo Alfonso GallardoJerez de los Caballeros (JDLC)Badajoz650
MegasaLa CorunaNaron675
RivaSiderurgica SevillanaSeville350
Arcelor Mittal Zumarraga facility in Gipuzkoa was partially closed in 2016; this rebar production facility may currently be mothballed. However, the ArcelorMittal Bergara bar mill in Gipuzkoa may have additional rebar capacity. Megasa full name is Metalurgica Galaica SA; the firm acquired the Zaragoza bar mill from ArcelorMittal in 2016. Grupo Gallardo facilities were acquired by Grupo Industrial Cristian Lay in August 2020. Note that Celsa's 550 kt / year Russula wire rod factory in Bayonne (commissioned in 2021) is just across the border in France.

Please contact for further insights into the extent of competition in any given market sector.

Independent Consulting Advice

Our main activity is feasibility study appraisal and due diligence work, for mining and metal sector clients worldwide. Why not call one of our advisors for a no-obligation discussion on +44-775-149-0885 ? Alternatively please email us.

We may be able to help with an independent consumption analysis; with a technical and / or financial review of your investment plans; offer insight into your strategic positioning; and perhaps assist you in obtaining external finance.

Our parent company Metals Consulting International Limited is an independent privately owned firm. MCI is based in London, in the United Kingdom.

ladle furnace


performance improvement consulting

Looking to improve your plant's operating performance? We have technical experts in melting casting and rolling, who are able to diagnose manufacturing problems and offer solutions. See our industrial case studies page.


Beginners Start Here

Are you unfamiliar with the world of steel, or with the technical terminology used? Perhaps you don't have a metallurgical or technology background; or maybe you just want to brush up on your steel industry knowledge?

If so, we have some great resources that might be of interest. Click below to see some introductory videos about how steel is made. Another link below will also take you to our steel industry glossary of terms.


Crossword and quiz
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International steel sector reports, analysis and business intelligence.

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